Here are three quick and dirty ways to get to know your prepositions:
Read a Book
There are books out there, like anything else, specifically geared towards learning and understanding prepositions. One that I recommend is English Prepositions Explained by Seth Lindstromberg. It approaches it from a cognitive linguistic perspectives that, in my opinion, works really well. It is also comparative in the sense that it contrasts them against each other.
Make and Do Gap Fills
Get a text into Word and make a gap fill by doing a Search and Replace of your target prepositions and then do them. You can make these for your students or have them make them themselves.
Read a Dictionary
While most people use dictionaries to look up definitions of words they rarely sit down and look at all the various meanings of a word. Not only are the meanings related but they stem from its core meaning or meanings. So it pays to look at all of them to not only reinforce the ones you know but also learn others you may have come across but not intimate with, as well as familiarize yourself with first time encountered meanings.